​​Fall ’22
​​PHIL 2100
​​Philosophical Thinking
​​Dr. Mario Hubert
Worksheet III
The Qualities of a Society (427d–434d)
1. What are the four qualities of a properly founded city?
2. 428b–429a: What is the wisdom of a city or community? Which caste is the bearer of wisdom? Try to explain which qualities make them wise (in contrast to the other castes).
3. 429a–430c: Which part of the society is the bearer of courage? How is courage defined? Explain also the analogy of dyeing clothes.
4. 431a: What is self-mastery or self-discipline for a person? How can it be spoiled?
5. 431b–432b: What is self-discipline on the level of a society? Which caste is the bearer of self-discipline?
6. 423b–434d: What is morality on the level of a society? Who is the bearer of morality?

The Qualities of the Mind (434d–448e)
In this part, Plato applies his ideas from the previous passage to the mind in order to find out what a moral person is. This passage is rather abstract and leads us into Plato’s metaphysics and epistemology. In the background, and still unspoken here, lies Plato’s theory of  the Forms.

7. 436a: What is the general problem concerning the structure of the mind?
8. 438c–439a: Socrates distinguishes two kinds of knowledge. What are they? Give examples.
9. 439a–c: Explain the analogy Socrates draws between knowledge and thirst.
10. 439c–e: How does Socrates argue that the mind consists of at least two parts? [Hint: He also implicitly uses a (metaphysical) principle that he mentioned before in 436c.]
11. 439e–441d: What are the arguments that the passions are not an instance of either reason or the desires?
12. 441d–442e: Explain wisdom, courage, self-discipline, and morality for a person or the  mind.
13. 444a–445a: What is immorality?
14. 445a-e: Why is morality rewarding? [More will be said in Ch. 11.]

Bring in your own opinions, critique, and evaluations whenever appropriate.
Plato (2008, Ch. 6)​​Due date: Oct. 24, 23:59

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